What is a hernia?
A hernia (or ‘rupture’) occurs where there is a weakness in the wall of the tummy (abdomen). As a result, some of the contents within the abdomen can then push through (bulge) under the skin. Normally, the front of the abdomen has several layers comprising skin, then fat, then muscles, which all keep the guts (intestines) and internal tissues in place. If, for any reason, there is a weak point in the muscles, then part of the intestines can push through. You can then feel a soft lump or swelling under the skin.
What are the types of hernia?
Different types of hernia can occur. The most common types are listed here:

Inguinal hernia
This is the most common type of hernia. Males are more likely to have inguinal hernias, as they have a small tunnel in the tissues of their groins. Tissue from the intestines can also pass into this tunnel, forming an inguinal hernia.
Femoral hernia
This also occurs when some tissue pushes through in the groin, a little lower down than where an inguinal hernia occurs. They occur more commonly in women. They tend to be smaller than inguinal hernias.
Incisional hernia
This occurs when tissue pushes through a previous scar or wound. They are more common if someone have had a scar in the past that has not healed well. For example, if the wound had an infection after the operation. They usually occur within two years of having an operation.
Umbilical and paraumbilical hernias
These occur when some tissue pushes through the abdomen near to the belly button (umbilicus). Umbilical hernias can be present from birth and in most cases the hernia goes back in and the muscles re-seal on their own before the baby is 1 year old. They will generally be repaired if they persist beyond 5 years of age or if they are very large.
Umbilical hernias may develop in adults with being overweight (obesity) and excessive accumulation of fluid within the peritoneum of the abdomen (ascites).
Paraumbilical hernias occur in adults and appear above the umbilicus. Although they are generally small, they usually need repairing because there is a risk of intestines contained within them becoming strangulated (see below).
Who gets hernias?
Hernias in adults may arise as a result of the strain which raises the pressure in the tummy (abdomen), causing a weakness or tear in the abdominal wall. This can be caused by:
• Persistent coughing
• Being overweight or pregnant
• Lifting, carrying or pushing heavy loads
• Straining on the toilet
Inguinal hernias are more common in males, whereas femoral and umbilical hernias are more likely to occur in females.
What are the symptoms?
Sometimes a hernia is noticed after a strain – for example, after lifting a heavy object. Sometimes one may develop for no good reason and you may simply notice a small lump, usually in the groin area. Usually, at first, the lump can be pushed back, but may pop out after straining again. Coughing is a common strain that brings them out. The swelling often disappears when you lie down.
Hernias are not usually painful, but many people feel an ache over a hernia, which worsens after doing any activity. In time, they might become bigger as the gap in their muscle or ligament tissue becomes larger. Sometimes, in men, they track down into the scrotum.
Why do they need treatment?
Although having a hernia is not usually a serious condition, treatment to fix it is usually advised for two reasons:
• It may gradually become bigger and more uncomfortable.
• There is a small chance it might strangulate. A hernia strangulates when too much bowel (intestine) comes through the gap in the muscle or ligament and then it becomes squeezed. This can cut off the blood supply to the portion of intestine in the hernia. This can lead to severe pain and some damage to the part of the intestines in the hernia. A strangulated hernia is uncommon and is usually dealt with by emergency surgery. However, it is preferable to have the hernia fixed by routine rather than by emergency surgery.
The risk of strangulation is greater with a femoral hernia than with an inguinal hernia. The risk is also greater with smaller hernias.
How are hernias repaired?
A hernia can be fixed by a small operation. Wearing a support (truss) was a method used in the past but is now not recommended.
A hernia repair is one of the most common operations performed by surgeons. It is very common for people to have their hernia repaired as a day case so that there is no need to stay overnight in hospital. A hernia can either be repaired under a local or a general anaesthetic. This will depend on the actual type of operation needed.
Inguinal hernia repair
This is usually done by a ‘keyhole’ operation, as the recovery is quicker compared to having an open operation. The operation is performed through three tiny cuts, the largest of which is only around 1.5 cm in size.
It is more common that inguinal hernias be repaired by using a mesh. This is a thin sheet of material which is usually stitched or glued over the hole of the hernia. This has been shown to be stronger and more effective than sewing the edges of the hole together for inguinal hernias. With time, the mesh safely becomes incorporated into the muscle layer, which results in a very strong, permanent repair.
Femoral hernia repair
As the hole through which a femoral hernia has to pass is very tight, there is a significant chance that any bowel that passes into it will become strangulated. This means that a femoral repair should be repaired early. Like inguinal hernias, femoral hernias are usually repaired using a mesh.
Incisional hernia repair
Incisional hernias vary enormously in size, which means that treatment may differ depending on the size of the incisional hernia. Again, a mesh is usually used, especially for larger hernias.
Umbilical and paraumbilical hernia repair
Smaller hernias are usually repaired by an operation which simply closes the defect with stitches. However, umbilical and parumbilical hernias over 2 cm in length are usually repaired by using a mesh.
Newer techniques mean that people tend to be off work for much shorter periods than in the past. Even workers in heavy work can often be back in two weeks. The operation is usually very successful. However, hernias can return (recur) in a small number of people, when a further operation may be advised.

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